"… Glial cells, sometimes called neuroglia or simply glia (Greek γλία, γλοία “glue”; pronounced in English either /gliːə/ or/glaɪə/), are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the brain, and for neurons in other parts of the nervous system such as in the autonomous nervous system. In the human brain, there is roughly one glia for every neuron with a ratio of about two neurons for every glia in the cerebral gray matter.
As the Greek name implies, glia are commonly known as the glue of the nervous system; however, this is not fully accurate.Neuroscience currently identifies four main functions of glial cells: to surround neurons and hold them in place, to supplynutrients and oxygen to neurons, to insulate one neuron from another, and to destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons. For over a century, it was believed that they did not play any role in neurotransmission. That idea is now discredited; they do modulate neurotransmission, although the mechanisms are not yet well understood. …”